{1}...Bill Crow "Jazz Anecdotes" Oxford University Press p. 215 1990
{2}.Esquire August 1944.
{3}.Metronome, November , 1945.
{4}.Crow  p. 42
{5}.Hugues Panassie "Louis Armstrong" p. 38 Charles Scribner's 1971
{6}.Max Jones "Talking Jazz" interview 1974.
{7}.Crow p. 210
{8}.Joachim Berendt, "The New Jazz Book" p. 11 Lawrence Hill and Co. 1975
{9}."On a Negro Orchestra" from Revue Romande June 1919
{10}.Constant Lambert on Ellington. Locke p. 98 1936
{11}."Talking Jazz" interview June 1954
{13}.Leroi Jones "Black Music"  p.37-38 Greenwood Press 1980
{14}.Berendt p. 275-276
{15}."Black Music" p. 164
.Ira Gitler  "Jazz Masters of the Forties" Collier Books 1966
{17}."Black Music" p.195
{18}.Max Roach from a panel discussion at Music Inn Lenox, MA 1956
{20}.Gitler p. 183
{21}."Black Music" p. 38
{22}.Berendt p. 254
{23}.April-June 1954 Melody Maker
(24}.Whitney Balliett "American Musicians. 56 Portraits in Jazz" p. 97
        Oxford University Press 1986
{25}.Count Basie with Albert Murray "Good Morning Blues p. 149
       Random House 1985
{26}."Talking Jazz" interview May 1971
{27}.Leonard Feather "The Book of Jazz from Then to Now" p. 199 Bonanza 1965
{28}.ibid. p. 94
{29}."Talking Jazz" interview June 1974
{30}.ibid. interview 18 April 1981
{31}.Alain Locke "The Negro and His Music" p. 57-58
        The Associates Negro Folk Education 1936
{32}.ibid  p. 68
{33}.ibid  p. 75
{34}.ibid  p. 124
{35}.ibid  p. 125
{36}."Blues People" p. 98
{38}.Frank Tirro "Jazz. A History" p. 114 Norton & Co 1977
{39}.Paul Oliver "Savannah Syncopators.
       African Retentions in the Blues" p.100  Stein and Day 1970
{41}.W. Barlow, "Looking Up at Down: the Emergence of Blues Culture" p, 18
       Temple University Press 1989.
{43}.Barlow  p. 18
{44}.Gunther Schuller "Early Jazz" Oxford 1968
{45}.Bruno Nettl "Folk and Traditional Music of the Western Continents"
       Prentice-Hall 1965
{46}.David Evans, "Goin' Up the Country: Blues in
       Texas and the Deep South" from "Nothing But the Blues"
{47}.Peter Gammon  "Scott Joplin and the Ragtime Era"  p. 8
       St. Martins Press 1975
{48}."Blues People" p. 114
{49}.Crow p. 146-147
{51}.ibid. p. 63
{52}.Berendt p. 281
{53}.Feather  "The Book of Jazz" p. 16
{55}.ibid.  p. 19
{56}."Talking Jazz" interview June 1974
{57}.Feather  p. 16
{58}.ibid  p. 10
{59}."Blues People" p. 149
{60}.Locke  "The Negro and His Music" 1936
{61}.Dizzy Gillespie with Al Fraser "To Be or Not To Bop" p. 483
        Doubleday 1979